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BibTeX field type: school

In BibTeX, the school field is utilized predominantly within @phdthesis or @mastersthesis entries. This field is used to indicate the educational institution where the thesis or dissertation was written. It is a mandatory field for both entry types, helping to provide detailed information about the origin of the scholarly work, which can be important for readers who may want to seek out more information or reference the work in their own research.

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Formatting Guidelines

When entering the name of the school, it’s advisable to use the full and official name of the institution to maintain a formal and standardized format in your references. Avoid using abbreviations unless they are widely recognized and accepted.


Here are examples of how to use the school field for both phdthesis and mastersthesis entries:

PhD Thesis

author = {John Doe},
title = {Explorations in Quantum Computing},
year = {2023},
school = {Massachusetts Institute of Technology},

Masters Thesis

author = {Sarah Smith},
title = {A Comprehensive Study on Environmental Sustainability},
year = {2023},
school = {University of California, Berkeley},


In your example, you used the series field instead of the school field for the mastersthesis entry. However, the school field should be used for specifying the institution in both phdthesis and mastersthesis entries, as shown in the examples above.